5 out of 5 stars (1,765) 1,765 reviews $ 5.48. According to the Pew Research Center, the largest historically African American Christian denominations are the National Baptist Convention (USA) and the Church of God in Christ.  Illegal immigration from the United States into Mexico continued to increase the population of Texas anyway. , Between 2006 and 2007, Texas spent $7,275 per pupil, ranking it below the national average of $9,389. Other major rivers include the Pecos, the Brazos, Colorado, and Red River. The Arts District of Downtown Dallas has arts venues such as the Dallas Museum of Art, the Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center, the Margot and Bill Winspear Opera House, the Trammell & Margaret Crow Collection of Asian Art, and the Nasher Sculpture Center.  To fund recent growth in the state highways, Texas has 17 toll roads (see list) with several additional tollways proposed. In early 1835, wary Texians formed Committees of Correspondence and Safety. Currently unavailable. The Assemblies of God made the largest Evangelical Pentecostal denomination at the 2014 study. In 1825, Texas had about 3,500 people, with most of Mexican descent. The regulatory authority, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), maintains the state's immense highway system, regulates aviation, and public transportation systems. , The region was primarily controlled by the Spanish for the first couple centuries of contact, until the Texas Revolution.  The state's population grew quickly during this period, with large levels of migration from outside the state.  While the former Republic of Texas could not enforce its border claims, the United States had the military strength and the political will to do so.  They total more than 1.2 million individuals. A State Convention considering secession opened in Austin on January 28, 1861. from $ 23.99. texas stock illustrations. , Texas throughout the 21st century has been hammered by drought. For Sale is a Pre-Owned Brown V-Neck Texas "Lone Star State" Logo Shirt. Spend some time in the Lone Star State. The state became notorious as a haven for people from other parts of the country who wanted to escape debt, war tensions, or other problems. This is the buried crest of the Appalachian Mountains–Ouachita Mountains zone of Pennsylvanian continental collision. Texas's Senators are John Cornyn and Ted Cruz. , In 2015 non-Hispanic whites made up 11,505,371 (41.9%) of the population, followed by Black Americans at 3,171,043 (11.5%); other races 1,793,580 (6.5%); and Hispanics and Latinos (of any race) 10,999,120 (40.0%). The region of 60,000 square miles (160,000 km2) contains most of the state's largest cities and metropolitan areas as well as 17 million people, nearly 75 percent of Texas's total population. The 1900 Galveston hurricane subsequently devastated that city, killing about 8,000 people or possibly as many as 12,000.  IAH offers service to the most Mexican destinations of any U.S. A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U.S. in early 1861, and officially joined the Confederate States of America on March 2 of the same year. Would you like to transfer them to your business profile?  Texas ranks close to last in access to healthcare, quality of care, avoidable hospital spending, and equity among various groups. France held a short-lived colony. In 1990, the Islamic population was about 140,000 with more recent figures putting the current number of Muslims between 350,000 and 400,000 as of 2012.  Lockheed builds the F-16 Fighting Falcon, the largest Western fighter program, and its successor, the F-35 Lightning II in Fort Worth.  The Trinity Railway Express (TRE) commuter rail service, which connects Fort Worth and Dallas, is provided by Trinity Metro and DART. They kill all of these they wish and tan the hides, with which they clothe themselves and make their tents, and they eat the flesh, sometimes even raw, and they also even drink the blood when thirsty. High quality The Lone Star State gifts and merchandise. , A wide range of animals and insects live in Texas. , Maximum temperatures in the summer months average from the 80s °F (26 °C) in the mountains of West Texas and on Galveston Island to around 100 °F (38 °C) in the Rio Grande Valley, but most areas of Texas see consistent summer high temperatures in the 90 °F (32 °C) range. , With large universities systems coupled with initiatives like the Texas Enterprise Fund and the Texas Emerging Technology Fund, a wide array of different high tech industries have developed in Texas.  The cotton price crash of the 1840s depressed the country's economy. The oldest sediments were deposited on the flanks of a rifted continental margin, or passive margin that developed during Cambrian time. Black Methodists and other Christians made up less than 1 percent each of the Christian demographic. The Texas A&M Aggies left the Big 12 and joined the Southeastern Conference in 2012, which led the Big 12 to invite TCU to join; TCU was previously in the Mountain West Conference. , The Texas constitution defines the responsibilities of county governments, which serve as agents of the state. It served as the largest hub for the former Continental Airlines, which was based in Houston; it serves as the largest hub for United Airlines, the world's third-largest airline, by passenger-miles flown. El Paso, on the western end of the state, averages 8.7 inches (220 mm) of annual rainfall, while parts of southeast Texas average as much as 64 inches (1,600 mm) per year. See more ideas about Lone star state, Lone star, Loving texas.  As Texas was always a conservative state, voters switched to the GOP, which now more closely reflected their beliefs. , In contrast to the cities, unincorporated rural settlements known as colonias often lack basic infrastructure and are marked by poverty. , Texas leads the nation in the production of cattle, horses, sheep, goats, wool, mohair and hay. , The size and unique history of Texas make its regional affiliation debatable; it can be fairly considered a Southern or a Southwestern state, or both. The Panhandle of the state has colder winters than North Texas, while the Gulf Coast has mild winters. , As of 1980 German, Irish, and English Americans have made the three largest European ancestry groups in Texas.  Before and after the U.S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. Seller assumes all responsibility for this listing. Member institutions are located in the southwestern United States, with schools in Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Arkansas.. It is the second largest U.S. state by both area (after Alaska) and population (after California). The executive branch positions consist of the governor, lieutenant governor, comptroller of public accounts, land commissioner, attorney general, agriculture commissioner, the three-member Texas Railroad Commission, the State Board of Education, and the secretary of state. , Texans also enjoy the rodeo. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, and finally the desert and mountains of the Big Bend. Share. The Houston Cougars and the SMU Mustangs compete in the American Athletic Conference.  The state grows significant amounts of cereal crops and produce.  Governor Abbott expressed regret over the swift reopening of bars during the COVID-19 pandemic in Texas. Americans with origins from the Pacific Islands are the smallest minority in Texas. Harvey ultimately became the costliest hurricane worldwide, causing an estimated $198.6 billion in damage, surpassing the cost of Hurricane Katrina.  Texas is one of seven states that lack a state income tax. Sea to Shining Sea .  In addition to the descendants of the state's former slave population, many African American college graduates have come to the state for work recently in the New Great Migration.  Creole language is spoken in some parts of East Texas. , According to the Energy Information Administration, Texans consume, on average, the fifth most energy (of all types) in the nation per capita and as a whole, following behind Wyoming, Alaska, Louisiana, North Dakota, and Iowa. Decorate your laptops, water bottles, helmets, and cars. , The state has three cities with populations exceeding one million: Houston, San Antonio, and Dallas. , The bicameral Texas Legislature consists of the House of Representatives, with 150 members, and a Senate, with 31 members. The resulting "oil boom" transformed Texas.  Friendly tribes taught newcomers how to grow indigenous crops, prepare foods, and hunt wild game. The Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas (METRO) operates light rail lines in the Houston area.  The Port Arthur Refinery in Southeast Texas is the largest refinery in the U.S. Texas also leads in natural gas production, producing one-fourth of the nation's supply. , In the Dallas–Fort Worth area, three public transit agencies provide rail service: Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART), Denton County Transportation Authority (DCTA), and Trinity Metro. , Founded in 1892, Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, also called "The Modern", is Texas's oldest art museum. The shoreline shifted again to the eastern margin of the state and the Gulf of Mexico's passive margin began to form.  Texas's large Christian population is also influenced due to its location within the Bible Belt. , The second president of the Republic of Texas, Mirabeau B. Lamar, is the Father of Texas Education. A hurricane in 1875 killed about 400 people in Indianola, followed by another hurricane in 1886 that destroyed the town. They were Caddoan, Atakapan, Athabaskan, Coahuiltecan, and Uto-Aztecan. , The Great Depression and the Dust Bowl dealt a double blow to the state's economy, which had significantly improved since the Civil War. Did you scroll all this way to get facts about lone star state svg? Texas is nicknamed the "Lone Star State" for its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico.  Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands, forests, and the coastline.  Legal challenges to the redistricting reached the national Supreme Court in the case League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry (2006), but the court ruled in favor of the state (and Republicans).  In 2010, there were 346,000 millionaires in Texas, constituting the second-largest population of millionaires in the nation. General José de Urrea defeated all the Texian resistance along the coast culminating in the Goliad massacre. It may have been claimed by several different peoples, including Uto-Aztecans, Athabaskans, or even Dhegihan Siouans. Many sought asylum in the United States.. ", "Late Cretaceous and Tertiary Burial History, Central Texas", "Texas Wildlife Identification & Viewing Guide", "Range Extension and Solitary nest founding in Polistes Exclamans", "Occurrence and Phenology of Polistine Wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in Southern Louisiana", "Lady Bird Johnson's I-95 Landscape-Landmark Tour - Highway History - FHWA - General Highway History - Highway History - Federal Highway Administration", "Mauriceville, Texas Travel Weather Averages", "Weather averages Dallas-DFW Intl Arpt, Texas", Hurricane Harvey: Preliminary Estimates of Commercial and Public Sector Damages on the Houston Metropolitan Area, "Here's how tropical storms have impacted Texas in the past 35 years", "Tropical Storm Allison blew through Houston 19 years ago", "Tropical Storm Claudette: The 'Mother Lode' of floods", "Rankings: Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2017", "Texas No.  The following largest groups were the irreligious (18%), nothing in particular (13%), Judaism (1%), Islam (1%), Buddhism (1%) and Hinduism and other religions at less than 1 percent each. Since 2012, Austin's Circuit of the Americas plays host to a round of the Formula 1 World Championship— the first at a permanent road circuit in the United States since the 1980 Grand Prix at Watkins Glen International—, as well as Grand Prix motorcycle racing, FIA World Endurance Championship and United SportsCar Championship races. , Texas has made a strong mark on national and international pop culture. , The late Paleozoic mountains collapsed as rifting in the Jurassic period began to open the Gulf of Mexico. But this time Gov. The Lone Star name is now owned by Pabst Brewing … , Like most of the South, the Texas economy was devastated by the War. , The state's two most widely recognized flagship universities are The University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M University, ranked as the 21st and 41st best universities in the nation according to 2020's latest Center for World University Rankings report, respectively. 1 producer of greenhouse gases", "Living, and coughing, downwind of Texas smoke stacks", "Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2006 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006", "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas Totals: 2010-2019", "The Texas Urban Triangle: Framework for Future Growth", "Distance Houston > Dallas - Air line, driving route, midpoint", "Colonias FAQ's (Frequently Asked Questions)", Impoverished border town grows from shacks into community, "Run for Party Nomination to Public Office", "County Elections – Partisan or Non-Partisan?  The rate of school corporal punishment in Texas is surpassed only by Mississippi, Alabama, and Arkansas.  Texas is the second-most populous state in the United States after California. , Since 1980, San Antonio has evolved into "The Tejano Music Capital Of The World". , The Railroad Commission of Texas, contrary to its name, regulates the state's oil and gas industry, gas utilities, pipeline safety, safety in the liquefied petroleum gas industry, and surface coal and uranium mining. A cool design for proud residents of Dallas, Texas, or anyone else who loves the Big D in North Texas. On February 1, by a vote of 166–8, the Convention adopted an Ordinance of Secession from the United States. Statehood brought many new settlers. reserves.  The party also attracted some minorities, but many have continued to vote for Democratic candidates. The Lone Star State.  Native American tribes who lived inside the boundaries of present-day Texas include the Alabama, Apache, Atakapan, Bidai, Caddo, Aranama, Comanche, Choctaw, Coushatta, Hasinai, Jumano, Karankawa, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Tonkawa, and Wichita. Railroad networks grew rapidly as did the port at Galveston as commerce between Texas and the rest of the U.S. (and the rest of the world) expanded. After this period, they supported Republicans for local and state offices as well, and most whites became Republican Party members. While Houston is the largest city in Texas and the fourth-largest city in the United States by population, the Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area is larger than the city and metropolitan area of Houston.  The state's refineries can process 4.6 million barrels (730,000 m3) of oil a day. This orogenic crest is today buried beneath the Dallas–Waco–Austin–San Antonio trend. The vast majority of the Hispanic/Latino population in the state is of Mexican descent, the next two largest groups are Salvadorans and Puerto Ricans. ... USA Texas Made Lone Star Map State Design Gift Ide. 2 for total agricultural revenue, behind California. The Caddoans preferred the company of Americans[according to whom?]  The city's music revolves around the nightclubs on 6th Street; events like the film, music, and multimedia festival South by Southwest; the longest-running concert music program on American television, Austin City Limits; and the Austin City Limits Music Festival held in Zilker Park. The Red River forms a natural border with Oklahoma and Arkansas to the north. More than 8.5 million people claim Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. , Unlike the rest of the nation, most of Texas is on its own alternating current power grid, the Texas Interconnection.  In 2004, a combined total of $298 billion of goods passed through Texas FTZs.. As with some other states before, the lumber industry quickly expanded in Texas and was its largest industry before the beginning of the 20th century. At that time, several sudden outbreaks of violence between Caddoans and Texans started to spread. Of the undocumented immigrant population, 960,000 have resided in Texas from less than 5 up to 14 years. , Texas modernized and expanded its system of higher education through the 1960s. The oldest rocks in Texas date from the Mesoproterozoic and are about 1,600 million years old..  The Houston Ship Channel spans 530 feet (160 m) wide by 45 feet (14 m) deep by 50 miles (80 km) long. Archaeologists have found that three major indigenous cultures lived in this territory, and reached their developmental peak before the first European contact. CODE ANN. 4. Migrants abandoned the worst-hit sections of Texas during the Dust Bowl years.  This election system has led to some executive branches split between parties and reduced the ability of the governor to carry out a program.  The TCU Horned Frogs and SMU Mustangs also share a rivalry and compete annually in the Battle for the Iron Skillet.  Twenty-three other empresarios brought settlers to the state, the majority of whom were from the United States.  Of the unaffiliated, an estimated 2% were atheists and 3% agnostic. "Welcome to the Houston-Galveston Navigation Channel Project Online Resource Center" (description), first European country to claim and control the area, Provisional Government of Mexico (1823–24), List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union, Dallas police officers were ambushed by Micah Xavier Johnson, a landmark Supreme Court case involving the Voting Rights Act, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Galveston-Houston, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of San Antonio, historically African American Protestant churches, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Deregulation of the Texas electricity market, Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Trammell & Margaret Crow Collection of Asian Art, State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness, List of colleges and universities in Texas, Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas Health Science Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Buffalo Bayou, Brazos and Colorado Railway, Capital Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas, League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry, United States presidential election in Texas, 2016, List of University Interscholastic League events, twelve American metropolitan areas that host sports teams from all the "Big Four" professional leagues, Southwestern Exposition and Livestock Show, "Elevations and Distances in the United States", "Population, Population Change, and Estimated Components of Population Change: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2020 (NST-EST2020-alldata)", "States with the most Fortune 500 companies", "The Journey of Alvar Nuńez Cabeza de Vaca", http://www.publishinghau5.com/The-History-of-Texas-page-9.php, "Tarlton Law Library: Constitution of the Republic of Texas (1836): General Provisions", "Visualizing Slavery: A Map of Slavery Interactive Feature", "Battle of Palmetto Ranch: American Civil War's Final Battle", "The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Tropical Cyclones From 1851 to 2006", "Texas Politics: Historical Barriers to Voting", "World War I and the Suppression of Dissent | Wendy McElroy", "Chart of the Week: The most liberal and conservative big cities", "Meet the Next Texans, a population boom that will change our politics", "Dallas police shooter a reclusive veteran", "Dallas Shooter Micah Johnson Was Army Veteran and 'Loner, "Five Dallas Officers Were Killed as Payback, Police Chief Says (Published 2016)", "Use of police robot to kill Dallas shooting suspect believed to be first in US history", "Texas leads in job imports but figures show a mixed bag", "North Texas among the regions benefitting from 'Bay Area exodus, "Tesla's Musk and Oracle Corp. follows 687,000 other Californians who've moved to Texas in last decade", "These are the top 10 states that people are moving to", "Where is Texas' growing population coming from? Career attorneys and analysts at the Department of Justice objected to the plan as diluting the votes of African American and Hispanic voters, but political appointees overrode them and approved it. County government runs similar to a "weak" mayor-council system; the county judge has no veto authority, but votes along with the other commissioners. Changes to Texas Districts", "Lieutenant Governor Loses Texas Runoff as Tea Party Holds Sway", "Texas Lt. Gov. Texas has led the U.S. in state export revenue since 2002 and has the second-highest gross state product. A fierce rivalry, the Lone Star Showdown, also exists between the state's two largest universities, Texas A&M University and the University of Texas at Austin. No culture was dominant in the present-day Texas region, and many peoples inhabited the area. During the Johnson Administration the first lady, Lady Bird Johnson, worked to draw attention to Texas wildflowers. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U.S., and El Paso.  Based on Census Bureau data released in February 2011, for the first time in recent history, Texas's white population is below 50 percent (45 percent) and Hispanics grew to 38 percent. In the 114th United States Congress, of the 36 Congressional districts in Texas, 24 are held by Republicans and 11 by Democrats. The largest Christian denomination as of 2014 is the Catholic Church (23%). One seat is vacant. They were not particularly kind to their native populations—even less so with the Caddoans, who were not trusted as their culture was split between the Spanish and the French. "A History of the Caddo Indians". Texas's border with Mexico was known as the "backdoor of the Confederacy" because trade occurred at the border, bypassing the Union blockade. , Texas is a "tax donor state"; in 2005, for every dollar Texans paid to the federal government in federal income taxes, the state got back about $0.94 in benefits.  This launched the Texas Revolution, and over the next two months the Texians defeated all Mexican troops in the region. Cotton and lumber became major industries creating new economic booms in various regions of the state.  Blacks or African Americans made up 12.9%, American Indians or Alaska Natives 1.0%, Asian Americans 5.2%, Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders 0.1%, some other race 0.2%, and two or more races 1.8%. Print for T-shirt, typography. DART began operating the first light rail system in the Southwest United States in 1996. The Houston and Dallas areas, and to a lesser extent, the Austin metropolitan area, all contain substantial Vietnamese communities.  The provisional government soon collapsed from infighting, and Texas was without clear governance for the first two months of 1836. Favorite Add to Lone Star State Texas shirt, Texas pride tee, Southern tees, Texas shirt women, Moving away gift mvptshirt.  When France began settling Louisiana, mostly in the southern part of the state, in 1716 Spanish authorities responded by founding a new series of missions in East Texas. Breezes and Sunshine to Power Georgetown, TX", "E.ON completes world's largest wind farm in Texas", "Borland bails out of California, moves HQ to Austin, TX", "Indeed opens new North Austin office, 1,000 new jobs planned", "Texas Instruments starts construction on Dallas plant", "Dell sells Perot Systems IT services division to Dallas firm", "Rackspace to Move into Former Texas Shopping Mall … Again", "Amazon founder unveils space center plans", "Census Regions and Divisions of the United States", "A California-style migration stirs up Texas melting pot", "Can Houston move past the 'melting pot'?  The Roscoe Wind Farm in Roscoe, Texas, is one of the world's largest wind farms with a 781.5 megawatt (MW) capacity.  A group of Democratic legislators, the "Texas Eleven", fled the state in a quorum-busting effort to prevent the legislature from acting, but was unsuccessful.  The population of Texas grew rapidly. Lone Star Barbecue Dishes Arrive in Southeast Las Vegas at L2 Texas BBQ The restaurant offers a drive-thru and an all-you-can-eat option by Susan Stapleton Jan 11, 2021, 12:00pm PST  The A-train commuter rail line, operated by DCTA, acts as an extension of the DART Green line into Denton County. Both SpaceX and Blue Origin have their test facilities in Texas. Southwest Airlines, headquartered in Dallas, has its operations at Dallas Love Field.. Except for some municipal benches, partisan elections select judges at all levels of the judiciary; the governor fills vacancies by appointment. The state has twelve Division I-FBS schools, the most in the nation. The state sales tax rate is 6.25 percent, but local taxing jurisdictions (cities, counties, special purpose districts, and transit authorities) may also impose sales and use tax up to 2 percent for a total maximum combined rate of 8.25 percent. Nondenominational and interdenominational Christians were the second largest Evangelical group (7%) followed by Pentecostals (4%). Contact Us: 210-481-4433 3435 THOUSAND OAKS #109 san antonio,texas 78247 , The Comanche Indians furnished the main Native American opposition to the Texas Republic, manifested in multiple raids on settlements.  In some areas of the state—particularly in the large cities—Western American English and General American English, is increasingly common. What are called commissioners court and court judges are elected to serve as the administrative arm. Texas has four metropolitan areas with populations greater than a million: Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, Houston–Sugar Land–The Woodlands, San Antonio–New Braunfels, and Austin–Round Rock–San Marcos.  With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including tourism, agriculture, petrochemicals, energy, computers and electronics, aerospace, and biomedical sciences. These salt deposits formed salt dome diapirs, and are found in East Texas along the Gulf coast. Hispanics or Latin Americans of any race made up 39.7% of the estimated population. , The state is a leader in renewable energy commercialization; it produces the most wind power in the nation. , Other devastating Texas hurricanes include the 1915 Galveston hurricane, Hurricane Audrey in 1957 which killed more than 600 people, Hurricane Carla in 1961, Hurricane Beulah in 1967, Hurricane Alicia in 1983, Hurricane Rita in 2005, and Hurricane Ike in 2008. , On July 7, 2016, Dallas police officers were ambushed by Micah Xavier Johnson, killing five officers and injuring nine others in retaliation against white police officers. The Lone Star State.  Abbott was sued by voters and voters rights groups following the order. African Americans are the racial minority in Texas. In Protestantism, Evangelicals form the largest theological branch (31%) followed by Mainline Protestants (13%) and historically African American Protestant churches (6%).  According to the Tax Foundation, Texans' state and local tax burdens rank among the lowest in the nation, 7th lowest nationally; state and local taxes cost $3,580 per capita, or 8.4 percent of resident incomes. , Trinity University, a private, primarily undergraduate liberal arts university in San Antonio, has ranked first among universities granting primarily bachelor's and select master's degrees in the Western United States for 20 consecutive years by U.S. News of the defeats sparked panic among Texas settlers. , Texas has a reputation of very harsh criminal punishment for criminal offenses. USA Texas flag map vintage design. Texas shares borders with the states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south and southwest, and has a coastline with the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast. , Texas is the southernmost part of the Great Plains, which ends in the south against the folded Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico. Texas may get one of the nation's first high-speed rail line. Sea to Shining Sea .  The Tejano Music Awards have provided a forum to create greater awareness and appreciation for Tejano music and culture. Because of the long Spanish presence in Mexico and various failed colonization efforts by the Spanish and Mexicans in northern Mexico, there were large herds of Longhorn cattle that roamed the state.  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